Learning French grammar: Types of French phrases

French phrases like English phrases

A phrase (une phrase) is a group of words including at minimum a subject and a verb, and may also include any or all of the parts of speech that are nouns, adjectives,adverbs, articles ...

French grammar: Types of French phrases

Phrases can be separated into a subject (un sujet) and a predicate (un prédicat). The subject is the person (or thing) performing the action, and the predicate is the rest of the sentence:

Je suis médecin - I am a doctor
Subject: je - I
Predicate: suis médecin - am a teacher

François et moi aimons les Etats-unis - François and I love USA
Subject: François et moi - François and I
Predicate: aimons les Etats-unis - love USA

La jeune étudiante est jolie - The young student is beautiful
Subject: la jeune étudiante - the young student
Predicate: est mignonne - is beautiful

French Phrase Types

There are four types of Phrases: statements, exclamatives, interrogatives, and commands.

1) Statement - Phrase assertive or Phrase déclarative

Statements, the most common type of sentence, state something:

   I'm going to France - Je vais en France
   I am sick - Je suis malade
   I will help you - Je vous aiderai
There are two subcategories of statements: affirmative statements - les phrases (déclaratives) affirmatives, as above, and negative statements - les phrases (déclaratives) négatives:

   I'm not going to school - Je ne vais pas à l'école
   I'm not sick - Je ne suis pas malade
   I don't want to become a doctor - Je ne veux pas devenir médecin
   He won't be there - Il ne sera pas là

2) Exclamative - Phrase exclamative

Exclamatives express surprise or indignation. They look just like statements except for the exclamation point:

   I want to go to home! - Je veux y aller à la maison!
   I hope so! - J'espère que oui !
   He's very smart! - Il est très élégant !
   That's a great job! - C'est une bon travail !

3) Interrogative - Phrase interrogative

Interrogatives (questoins) ask for or about something:

   Do you have my pen? - As-tu mon stylo ?
   Are you ready? - Es-tu prêt ?
   Where is she? - Où est-elle ?
   Can you help me? - Peux-tu m' aider ?

4) Command - Phrase impérative

Commands are the only kind of sentence without an explicit subject:

   Go away! - Va t'en !
   Be careful - Sois prudent (Fais attention!)
   Do the dishes - Faites la vaisselle

If you want to go further, take a look on the video below that is more explanatory.
A bientôt! :)